How early to arrive before flying is a question every passenger asks themselves before going to the airport. Some people go there hours before as the idea of missing a flight makes them anxious. Others aim to get there as late as possible to save time.
The standard industry recommendation for all flights heading to the U.S. from abroad is 3 hours. This is a conservative guideline which gives you plenty of time and allows for things to go wrong.
However, this is only a guideline and in some cases it could cause unnecessarily long waits, leaving you wondering how to pass the time at the airport. There are a number of considerations to think about, as explained below.
Travelers should consider the following questions. The more they answer “no” to, the later they can afford to arrive at the airport. Passengers who answer no to all the questions can arrive at the airport 2 hours before the flight.
Although some people who have already checked in online arrive only 60 minutes before their flight, this can be risky. There have been recent changes to airport security procedures for US-bound flights which take longer. Missing a flight could end up costing the traveler a lot more in terms of time and money.
Passengers should also remember to complete their ESTA application online at least 72 hours before setting off for the U.S. to allow for plenty of time for the application to be processed (if traveling from a country eligible for the visa waiver).
This differs from airline to airline. United say that baggage will not generally be accepted for check-in more than four hours before a scheduled flight. Whereas American Airlines accept luggage at their self-service kiosks up to 24 hours before take off.
People traveling without luggage can normally check in online at least a few days before the flight.
This depends on the airline, where the passenger is arriving from, and whether baggage needs to be checked in.
For most airlines, including American Airlines and United, travelers need to check-in at least 60 minutes before departure to the U.S. From certain destinations, it is 90 minutes so this is worth checking before flying.
Problems with transport or other issues occasionally cause travelers to miss their flight to the U.S. In this situation, the first thing to do is to warn the airline, depending on the circumstances and the company’s policy, it might be possible to join a later flight.
Passengers are encouraged to inform the airline as soon as they know that they will not make it for the flight to give them a chance to offer the seat to another passenger wishing to fly that day. Airlines are more likely to find space on a flight later that day if they are informed before the gate closes.
Travelers who miss a flight due to a set of circumstances out of their control, such as a train delay, should collect evidence of the event in order to submit a claim. Documents such as receipts from the train company or formal report may prove useful.
Travelers on airline-protected transfers who miss their connection because the first flight was delayed are covered. The flight operator is obliged to find you suitable accommodation close to the airport if necessary, to cover the expenses of meals and to find a seat on an alternative flight.
Any receipts for expenses such as food should be retained to claim reimbursement.
Luggage checked in at the start of the trip should travel ahead of the passenger and be stored safely until it is collected at the final destination. Travelers who are concerned about their bags are advised to call the airline.
Travelers in this situation should approach airline staff at the airport for guidance.
Passengers who book their flights separately are not protected in the same way. In this case, the traveler will likely be required to pay to change flights or for a new ticket if they do not make their connecting flight.
In this situation, the passenger should contact the airline to arrange luggage collection.
In general, there will be few consequences, if any, for the U.S. ESTA as a result of a missed flight. Even if it mentions the date of arrival on American soil, the ESTA will not be affected as it is a multiple-entry visa that can be used for repeated trips to the U.S. within 2 years.
Travelers who miss an outbound flight should ensure they have not reached the 90-day ESTA limit. Passengers who are at risk of overstaying their visa waiver due to a delayed flight or cancellation should explain their situation to border officials who will generally be understanding of the situation.
There have been several recent changes regarding rules and security checks for US-bound flights. In general, the procedure has become stricter and more thorough meaning that travelers should allow plenty time to get through security.
Passengers are asked a series of US border control questions, there is an enhanced screening for electronics, and there is increased security around the aircraft including sniffer dogs.
It is still possible to take laptops to the U.S. despite the short-lived ‘laptop ban’. Passengers should check with their airline before flying as more changes are expected and they’ll be implemented quickly.
Travelers who feel they have been treated unfairly during the screening process can apply for a redress number.
Though the rules for domestic USA flights are not as strict as those for US-bound flights, the TSA introduced a set of regulations in 2006 to tighten security. The rules are fairly standard for international travelers (you can take liquids on board as long as they’re in containers of 3.4 oz. or less, you can’t take sharp objects, etc.). The rules for hand luggage vary from airline to airline.
Flight passengers with a disability or a medical condition should contact the airline should they have any concerns. In these cases, travelers are not required to remove their shoes, though an alternative inspection may be necessary. The airline may advise travelers to factor in extra time for this procedure.
It is generally necessary to show a valid passport as well as a valid visa issued by a US embassy or consulate.
Travelers from countries included in the U.S. Visa Waiver Program can apply online for an ESTA. The visa waiver application is much faster and simpler than obtaining a conventional visa.
ESTA holders can stay in the United States without a visa for up to 90 consecutive days. The ESTA for transit is required by foreigners passing through an American airport on their way to another country.
On approval the ESTA visa waiver is automatically linked to the passport. Although it is not necessary to print out the visa waiver it is a good idea to take a paper copy in case it is requested by the airline.